As presented to the 3rd International Gemological Symposium
Gary W. Bowersox
P.O. Box 89646
Honolulu, HI 96830
During the 21st Century, Central Asia will become a major source of gems and minerals. Afghanistan, Kazakistan, Kyrgistan, Pakistan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan will supply the world market with large quantities of quality emerald, spinel, ruby, sapphire, aquamarine, tourmaline and lapis lazuli. Other known gems being mined on a smaller scale are topaz, morganite, garnet, and quartz (amethyst, clear and smoky).
At the 7th Symposium on the Gems and Minerals of Afghanistan, plans were developed to expand geological and gemological studies to include all of Central Asia. Detailed mapping began in Afghanistan during the Summer of 1998 using GPS (ground positioning system), satellite, and radar data, with the latest geophysical technology and computer imaging models.
The 1998 study team was composed of tribal leaders, miners, and representatives from GeoVision, Inc., ERDAS, Inc., and the US Geological Survey Team. Papers and articles are being prepared for publication.
During future years, the number of study team members and sites surveyed will be increased. For detailed information, refer to the published references below:
Bowersox, Gary W. (1985) "A Status Report on Gemstones from Afghanistan," Gems & Gemology, Vol. 21, No 4, pp. 191-204.
Bowersox, Gary W. and Anwar, Jawaid (1989) "The Gujar Killi Emerald Deposit, Northwest Frontier Province, Pakistan," Gems & Gemology, Vol. 25, No. 1, pp.16-24.
Bowersox, Gary W.; Snee, Lawrence; Foord, Eugene; and Seal, Robert R. (1991) "Emeralds of Panjsher Valley, Afghanistan," Gems & Gemology, Vol. 27, No. 1, pp 26-39.
Bowersox, Gary W. and Chamberlin, Bonita E. (1995) Gemstones of Afghanistan, Geoscience Press, Tucson. pp. 210.
Bowersox, Gary W. (1997) "Survey of Gem Deposits of Afghanistan, Kazakistan, Kyrgistan, Pakistan, and Tajikistan." (unpublished)
Bowersox, Gary W.; Chamberlin, Bonita E.; Foord, Eugene; Laurs, Brendan; Shigley, James; "Rubies and Sapphires of Jegdalek Afghanistan," Gems & Gemology (to be published).
Kazmi, A.H. and Snee, L.W., eds. (1989) Emeralds of Pakistan: Geology, Gemology and Genesis. Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York.
Kazmi, A.H.; Peters, J.J.; Obodda, H.P. (1985) "Gem Pegmatities of the Shimgus – Dusso area, Gilget Pakistan," Mineralogy Record, Vol. 16, No. 5, pp 393-411.
Wyart, J.; Bariand, P.; Filipp, J. (1981) "Lapis from Sar-e-Sang, Badakhshan, Afghanistan," Gems & Gemology, Vol. 17, No. 4, pp 184-190.